In the luxuriant forested foot hills of the Nilgiris, this 321sq kms sanctuary is part of a much larger reserve (3000 sq Km) Which includes Bandipur and Wynad in neighboouring Karnataka and Kerala.

The larger reserve ranges in vegetation from semi-evergreen forests is home to Chital (spotted Deer), Gaur (Indian Bison), tiger, Panther, wild boor and sloth bear, Otters and crocodiles inhabit the Moyar river. Mudumalai is mostly tropical dry and moist mixed deciduous forest, with some bamboo, sandalwood and teak.